Job analysis is the process of identifying and determining in detail the contents of a particular job, including but not limited to clearly defined duties, responsibilities, accountabilities, and skills associated with the job. It’s important to mention that the analysis is conducted of the job, and not of the person.
The process of job analysis results in:
1. Job description – It’s a formal document that includes all the details of a job, such as the title of the position, the responsibilities and tasks associated with it, the working environment and potential risks, the reporting structure, the tools, machinery, and equipment that will be utilized, and the connections with other positions.
2. Job specification – It offers information on the specific skills a person needs to be able to do the job well. A job’s necessary skills, knowledge, and abilities are included in this, along with the necessary training, experience, and educational background.
3. Job evaluation – Outlines the relative importance or value of every position within a company.
An organization undertakes the task of job analysis and evaluation for one or many of the following purposes:
- Designing new roles/jobs
- Changing the organizational design or roles
- Clarifying accountabilities of jobs
- Managing succession in the organization
- Aligning roles and pay to organizational changes
- Reviewing the existing pay structure
- Implementing benchmark pay structures
To fulfill the above-mentioned predetermined purposes, an organization can assign the job analysis project to its internal HR department or engage an HR consulting firm. External HR consultants, however, are advantageous due to their experience and unbiased opinions.
The various methods by which an HR Consultant can conduct a job analysis are:
- Observing the employee.
- Carrying out individual or group interviews.
- Having brainstorming sessions between groups of employees.
- Examining the documents used and tasks executed by employees.
- Asking employees to jot down all their tasks and duties as and when they perform them.
- Interviewing employees for clarification or any critical incidents that may have occurred.
- Review all the necessary documents present in the organization.
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